CHAPTER IV

BACK TO PUERTO RICO


Hector Campos Parsi returned to the island on June 30, 1954. His return was noted by the press and several articles appeared before and after his arrival.1 His success in France as a student of Mademoiselle Boulanger and as the recipient of the Ravel Prize gave him prominence in the local music world. The Ateneo, the oldest and most respected association of intellectuals on the island, offered the composer a lavish reception welcoming him back on the island.2 One of the articles commemorating Campos' arrival was titled "Wishes to work here on behalf of Puerto Rican music".3 It cited the composer discussing some characteristic elements of his music: "Critics and connoisseurs of music have classified my music as Puerto Rican because they find in it certain basic elements different from what they find in other compositions. The truth is that when I compose I do not try deliberately to use elements of our folklore as a starting point, but although the intention might not be there, the Puerto Rican (element) inevitably comes through."

The student grants that Campos received during the conservatory period now obliged the young composer to work for several years with the Department of Education. Campos Parsi was hired by the Department to work as a music teacher and technical advisor. He developed a music curriculum for the newly established Escuelas Libres de Música and traveled extensively throughout the island overseeing the implementation of that program. A radical transformation of Puerto Rican society was underway at this time, moving from a completely agrarian society, with it's ancient customs and roles, to a consumer society supported by heavy industry based on the American model. With the end of the Second World War many veterans returned to the island, they brought back skills and experiences acquired overseas; and pockets filled with cash.4

Many federal government programs were extended to the island: Social Security, Aid to Farmers, among many others. The local economy began to see a great influx of American dollars and of consumers ready to spend. Luis Muñoz Marín, the governor at the time, was worried that the islanders would go on a spending binge. The idea of having money to spend was a new one in a country that had long been accustomed to deep and permanent poverty. The fear that conspicuous consumption and other vices of a consumer society would affect the Puerto Ricans was great. A government plan called "Operation Dignity" was set in motion by the island government. The basic policy behind this program was to stimulate savings and stem the appetite for imported goods.

In the summer of 1954, a festival of new music, Woche füaut;r Neue Musik, was held in Frankfort, West Germany. This event featured some of the outstanding European composers of the time including Luciano Berio, Luigi Nono, Karel Husa, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Aaron Copland, Alberto Ginastera, and many others.4 The program guide for this festival, held on June 16-20, contained a summarized technical analysis of Divertimento del Sur, and a brief biography of the Campos Parsi. The latter was interesting as it revealed new information about the composer's education: "...Later studies at Berkshires Music Center in Tanglewood with Oliver Messian and Jacques Ibert. Grant from the University of Puerto Rico for further studies with Nadia Boulanger."5 With the performances in Paris under Pierre Capdeville of the Divertimento6 and the presentation of the work at the Frankfort Festival, Campos Parsi's career as a professional composer was on it's way. This work has been performed on numerous occasions, and is probably the most popular piece in the composer's catalogue.

Soon after, in November of 1954, an important event for the world of contemporary music was held in Caracas, Venezuela, the Primer Festival de la Música Latinoamericana. This was the first music festival ever dedicated completely to contemporary Latin American music.7 Most of the major Latin American composers of the time attended the meeting. The Festival included a composition competition that offered generous prizes and performances of the works selected. First prize was awarded to Juan José Castro of Argentina, second went to Carlos Chávez of Mexico, third to Julián Orbón of Cuba. Among those present from latin American countries were Hector Villalobos, Carlos Chávez, Hector Tosar, Juan José Castro, Alberto Ginastera,Alejo Carpentier and Julián Orbón. Representing North America and Europe were Aaron Copland, Edgar Varese, Virgil Thompson, Gertrude Schoenberg, the composer's widow and her daughter.8

From Puerto Rico a group including Hector Campos Parsi, Alfredo Matilla and Jesús María Sanromá was sent under the auspices of the Puerto Rican government to participate in the occasion. Sanromá was by this time a distinguished concert pianist and recording artist. He gave numerous performances throughout the United States with the Boston Symphony, Boston Pops, New York Philharmonic. He premiered works by Hindemith, Stravinski, Gershwin, and Campos Parsi among many others.

The opportunity to get together with the outstanding artists of the hemisphere was exhilarating for all participants. Debates, seminars, performances and meetings were the order of the day.9 One of the important achievements of this festival was the founding of the Asociación Interamericana de Música. This association was dedicated to the furtherance of contemporary American music; American in the sense of America, the continent. Thus it included composers of the entire hemisphere and a surprisingly varied mixture of ideologies and stylistic tendencies were represented. Inocencio Palacios of Venezuela was elected as the first president of the organization and among his advisors elect were Aaron Copland, Hector Villalobos, and Enzo Valenti-Ferro. Five national representatives were chosen, among them Hector Campos Parsi, the others were Hector Tosar, Guillermo Espinosa, Rodolfo Halfter and Harold Gramatges. Mexico was selected as the host country of the organization.

As one of the participants, Campos Parsi was interviewed by several Venezuelan newspapers, and in some of them he discussed his own ideas about music. In an article titled "The music of Latin America has found it's place of convergence in Venezuela" the composer revealed his approach: "My music is written within the traditional systems of tonality....It's primary aspect is melodic and rhythmic, transporting the essence of the popular to art music, though sometimes I use some melodic or rhythmic motif from Puerto Rican folklore".10 In another interview he spoke to a reporter of a work in progress and presented an interesting view of his stylistic development: "...there is an unfinished symphony, as yet, that Campos Parsi considers, until now, the most transcendental and the most characteristically personal in his style, that without imitating others has fruitfully explored an incipient expressionism, through central european nationalism, and has allied itself forever with Stravinski and most important, with Bartok".11 This unfinished symphony was probably the Oda a Cabo Rojo.

The Festival was a resounding success and many activities and organizations grew out of this initial encounter. A second meeting was planned for the next year, to be held in Mexico City. It was a successful ending and an auspicious beginning for the contemporary music of all the Americas.12 Back on the island, Campos Parsi was asked to face the challenge of organizing what would eventually become one of the most important institutions promoting music, fine arts, and literature in Puerto Rico.

A bill was enacted by the island legislature creating an autonomous semi-public institution to be named Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña. After much debate and wrangling the proposal was enacted and the funds for it's operation were appropriated. There was much opposition to this "Institute" as some politicians, awash in anti-communist hysteria saw it as another separatist, possibly left wing, threat to promote Puerto Rican independence. Ricardo Alegría was named executive director of the organization, a position he would hold for more than twenty years. The purpose of this organization was to promote and preserve traditional Puerto Rican culture from the onslaught of americanization, the wholse sale adoption of US culture; and at the same time educate and expose the islanders to the humanist culture of the western world.

The most distinguished artists and intellectuals from all areas of arts and the humanities were enlisted for this project. Among the those invited to form a select committee to advise the director on musical matters was Hector Campos Parsi. Alegría had known the composer since their days at the University of Puerto Rico, when Campos had been so actively involved with musical activities on campus. He was aware of the composer's career and his studies abroad and considered him an ideal candidate. In February of 1956 Campos received a letter inviting him to join the committee on musical affairs and he immediately accepted the offer. He eventually became director of the music program at the Instituto and remained associated with the organization for over twenty-five years.

One of his first projects of this agency was the establishment of local "cultural centers" in the small and impoverished towns of the island. To these Campos Parsi sent materials, "sort of a book-of-the month-club" as he called the project, pertaining to an important aspect of culture. Lectures, plays, exhibits and music were also featured at these locales. Chamber trios were formed so that the outstanding island musicians could travel to the island towns and municipalities to present concerts and lectures. For some of these remote towns and villages this was the first time the inhabitants saw a live concert.

Luz Hutchinson remembers she was asked to form one of the first such travelling ensembles. Along with her husband, violinist Henry Hutchinson, and soprano María Esther Robles, she traveled to many island towns to present free concerts of Danzas, Puerto Rican composers and the western art music. Her memories include performing in open air plazas, schools, churches, and anywhere they could find her a piano. "Playing conditions were sometimes very bad, but it was worth it just to see how much the people enjoyed the music; for many of them it was the first time they would hear Mozart and the other great composers." Through the years Campos Parsi organized and managed many other activities destined to promote the musical culture of western art music, including contemporary music. But he also insisted that traditional Puerto Rican folk and popular music be a part of the programs. For this purpose he created many different events that were repeated every year, including the "Fiesta de la Música Puertorriqueña", "Ballet Hispano", "Centenario de Morel Campos", "Festival de la Danza" and many others.

During this same period in 1956, the Puerto Rican government gave serious consideration to the creation of a national conservatory of music where education of the highest level could be offered. To this end the island legislature created an advisory group to formulate recommendations. Among the group of distinguished musicians selected were Augusto Rodriguez, Jesús María Sanromá, Monserrate Ferrer, Carmelina Figueroa, José Figueroa, Roger Martinez and Hector Campos Parsi. The work culminated in the establishement of the Conservatory four years later in 1960.

Despite the fact that he was involved in all of these organizational activities, Campos still managed to compose and collaborate with other important island artists. In 1956 he was asked to write the score for a film to be produced locally with a non-professional cast. This short film, "Modesta", was one of several produced by the Puerto Rican government to be used as educational tools to promote health, education, and as a weapon in the struggle to overcome illiteracy. To the surprise of all of the parties involved, the movie was invited to the Seventeenth Film Festival held in Venice, Italy were it was awarded first prize in the documentary category. It also won Honorable Mentions at the Edinburgh and the Melbourne film festivals. Inspired by this success Campos created a suite based on the music that appeared in the film.13

In the summer of 1956 Hector Campos returned to Tanglewood. He received a scholarship that enabled him to study again with Aaron Copland and participate in the summer festival. There he presented his Sonatina #2 for violin and piano, and the "Tres Poemas para Corretjer" for soprano and piano.14 Other awards that the composer received during this period include the first prize for musical composition at the Christmas festival of the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the song "Amanecer" with a text created by Puertorrican poet Luis LLorens Torres, the publication of his Sonatina #2 for Violin and Piano by the Ateneo (1957) and first prize in composition at the competition sponsored by WIPR, the government television station, for his "Tres Fantasias para Piano" (1957). In 1959 Campos Parsi received an Honorable Mention prize in this same competition.15

Campos Parsi completely immersed himself in his job as director of the music program at the Instituto de Cultura, but at the same time he was involved with numerous other activities and continued his creative work.16 He attended the First Interamerican Music Festival in Washington, D.C. (1956), and the Second Interamerican Festival held in Caracas (1957). He presented lectures on Puerto Rican music in Cuba, and Mexico (1956). He was very active on the island as a promoter of the island's traditional music and as well as encouraging the creation of a professional symphony orchestra.

The presence of Pablo Casals on the island was a fortuitous event that further advanced these causes. Fulfilling a childhood dream of visiting his mother's homeland, Casals came to visit Puerto Rico and fell in love with what he found. He was already a recognized world class artist with an established following among music lovers as well as professional musicians. Governor Muñoz Marín and other people saw the opportunity for great publicity that would help the island's tourist industry become competitive.17

Casals was impressed by the beauty of the island and the warm reception he received everywhere. He played several concerts including one at his mother's ancestral house in the town of Mayagüez, and was mobbed by admiring crowds. On March 18, 1956, a concert was given in his honor and the island's most prominent artists and intellectuals were invited to attend. This program featured local performers, and three works by Hector Campos Parsi were included in the evening's music, these were "Canciones de Cielo y Agua", "Sonatina #2", and the "Plena". Casals enjoyed the music and complimented the young composer on his work. Pablo Casals decided that he would like to contribute to the island's artistic development. Armed with promises of unlimited assistance from the local government he announced that for the next year, the Casals Festival would be held in Puerto Rico. This Festival had been held in Prades, France where it attracted most of the outstanding concert musicians of the world. It gave Puerto Rico immediate international coverage and exposure, making it an important place for music lovers.18

1957 was the first season for the Casals Festival in Puerto Rico. An important result of the Festival was that some Puerto Rican musicians and composers received the opportunity to appear before a wider audience. One of the first recordings by the Casals Festival contained Campos Parsi's Divertimento del Sur and the Piano Sonata in G. The record was issued on the Cook label, sponsored by the the University of Puerto Rico and the Instituto de Cultura. It received world wide distribution, a first for an island composer. This record received good reviews from at least two critics. The Christian Science Monitor wrote: "[The Divertimento] reveals it's composer to have the same adroit touch as Francis Poulenc...This piece is not a merely ingratiating compilation of sounds, however, but music that also has poetic things to say".19

An reviewer for The Miami News wrote: "The Divertimento is expressive of the sunny spirit and indolent sensousness of Puerto Rico's southern reaches where the composer was born.20 The Divertimento became Campos Parsi's most recognized and celebrated work. In 1958 José Pares choreographed the greek legend of Narcissus and Echo to this music, using a libretto created by Alicia Alonso.21 Alexander Schneider conducted it's performance at a concert sponsored by the 1958 Casals Festival with Bernard Goldberg playing flute and Wallace Shapiro on clarinet.22

Milton Katims, the conductor, was taken with this work but found certain flaws that he believed could be corrected. In a letter dated March 19, 1959 to Campos, he advanced suggestions to this regard: "Late in June, I am going to Chicago to conduct a half dozen outdoor concerts of a symphony orchestra in Grant Park. I would like very much to program the work there too but in it's present form it might not be advisable in such a large place. I am going to make a suggestion ...would you consider enlarging the instrumentation for for the Divertimento with particular reference to the first, third and fifth movements for full symphony orchestra. I feel the music would lend itself admirably for the added instruments, especially the brass and percussion....Please let me know what you think of this idea".23

In 1960 Campos was commissioned to write a work for string orchestra for the International Congress of Strings. This work, Rapsodia Elegíaca for soprano and strings, was dedicated to the memory of the late Brazilian composer Hector Villalobos. This music was based on two melodies composed by Villalobos, the Chorros number two and "The litte train". The International Congress of Strings met that year in San Germán, a college town on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. The Congress was sponsored by the American Federation of Musicians and the Inter-American University. Roy Harris was the director and conductor for the occasion. Faculty and performers included Sydney Harth, concert master of the Chicago Symphony, Abraham Skernick, principal violist of the Cleveland Symphony, and Pablo Casals as music advisor.24 That summer the Congress played a series of thirteen concerts throughout the island. The music selected for these programs featured the music of contemporary composers of diverse stylistic tendencies. A sample concert included music by Campos Parsi, Cowell, Villalobos, Ridout, Freedman and Harris.25

One of the outstanding musical events of 1960 was the celebration of the First International Congress of Composers in Stratford, Canada. The most prominent personalities of the contemporary music world of the time attended. Among the delegates were Luciano Berio, Gunther Schuller, Hank Badings, Roy Harris, Ernst Krenek, Otto Luening, George Rochberg, Vladimir Ussachevsky, and Edgar Varese.26 During the Congress American composer Roy Harris conducted the Rapsodia Elegíaca again in a concert that included music of Harris, Cowell and Villalobos. This performance put Hector Campos Parsi in the spotlight with the most prominent international composers of the day. His participation in the discussions and events of the Congress gave him the unique opportunity to observe first hand the most recent compositional trends and techniques and to form lasting friendships among the elite group. He was impressed with the experimentation with electronic musical instruments and their possible application for composers. He realized the preeminence of serial compositional techniques at that time and felt the urge to use these elements in his work. The effect of the Congress on Campos Parsi was strong; it motivated him to experiment freely and to search for newer modes of expression.

In 1960 the Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico was finally established. After many years of petitioning the legislature and the powers of the land, the idea of a center for advanced musical studies became a reality.27 Some of the outstanding musicians of Spain and Latin America were signed on as teachers. Among them were distinguished musicians and composers such as Jesús María Sanromá, Hector Tosar of Uruguay, Juan José Castro of Argentina, and Juan Bautista Plaza of Spain.28 Campos Parsi was hired to teach courses in solfege, ear training, counterpoint and orchestration. He was particularly proud of having taught the very first class at the newly formed institution; classes started at 8:00 a.m. and his was the first on the schedule. His association with the Conservatory continued for thirteen years, up to 1973.

During this period in 1960 Campos began producing and emceeing the arts and science segment of "Panorama Mundial", a daily news presentation of WIPR the government sponsored television station. This association with television continued and in 1975 he was the host of his own television program "Mirador Puertorriqueño".29 This program became one of the most influential cultural commentary shows on local television and many young artists, including myself, had an opportunity to be interviewed and perform for an audience.

Few things are more painful than the death of a parent, particularly when that parent was supportive and loving. When José Miguel Campos died on July 25, 1961, the composer mourned deeply. Although initially opposed to Hector's decision to study in Paris, José Miguel eventually accepted the move and gave the young composer his blessing. He felt pride in his son's accomplishments and kept albums with many newspaper items, letters, photographs, programs, and many souvenirs of the composer's career. He provided much financial and emotional support crucial to the young composer's early years. José Miguel Campos believed in his son's talent and was rewarded with the pleasure of enjoying Hector's early triumphs.

As the decade began a change in style and expression in the works of local composers was noticed by critics and writers in Puerto Rico, who labeled works of this period (1960-70) as "experimental".30 This classification was perhaps more closely related to the perceptions of the critics than to the realities of twentieth century composition. One of the works that best exemplifies this departure from his earlier neo-classical style was Petroglifos from 1966. One of the reasons for this new direction was the influence of Alberto Ginastera. Campos developed a close friendship with him and considered him as one of the leading composers of the time. Campos Parsi related that he was always looking forward to Ginastera's latest work and felt a strong admiration for his music.

In 1964 Ginastera presented his first opera, Don Rodrigo, to unanimous critical acclaim. This monumental work was impressive in many aspects including the enourmous forces required to perform it. Twelve tone technique was utilized as the compositional idiom with great success, and a complex formal structure created an opera that gradually built up internal tension straight to the explosive finale.31 Campos Parsi was very impressed by this work and as a result his compositional ideas and concepts were challenged. He felt free to incorporate new techniques and gestures into his compositions, and was more willing to move into more progressive territory. Among the new elements found in works of this period, such as Columnas y Círculos (1966), was the use of unconventional time-based notation instead of the traditional western symbolic writing. The incorporation of these techniques pointed to the evolution of Hector Campos Parsi thinking as a creative composer.

It is interesting to note that despite this esthetic and expressive evolution Campos was increasingly considered by many as the "establishment composer". Other composers and peers considered his many commissions, grants and activities as an unfair advantage and that they were the result of influential connections and political patronage. They claimed that this undue favoritism limited the posible exposure of other artists.32 Among his most vocal critics were two composers who identified increasingly with more avantgarde forms of composition: Francis Schwartz and Rafael Aponte-Ledeé. They felt that they represented the new wave of contemporary music and that they had an obligation to transform the political and aesthetic reality of music in Puerto Rico. They were both media savy and used the press, television and radio to promote their beliefs.33

They attacked Campos ever more frequently from all sides, including his personal life. They perceived him as representing a decadent and reactionary musical philosophy that threatened to hinder the development of the avantgarde in general and of contemporary music in Puerto Rico. During this period Campos ignored these critics as he did not feel threatened by them, he viewed them as mere opportunists who were looking for a prominent target to attack, in an attempt to garner publicity for themselves. Eventually, however, he clashed with them.

In 1965 he received and completed a commission from Esso Standard Oil to write a work for the Interamerican Arts Festival. This Festival was held at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington D.C. The composition for piano and orchestra received it's premiere with Elias Lopez Sobá on piano and Victor Tevah conducting the National Symphony Orchestra. That same year he received the Journalism Prize from the San juan Review. This award cited his contribution in "making a unique and valuable contribution to the flow of fact and opinion in covering news events throughout the year."

In 1966 Ricardo Alegría appointed Campos as Director of the Music Program of the Instituto de Cultura. This appointment was merely nominal as Campos had been fulfilling the role of director for quite some time. He continued with his basic philosophy of including all styles of musical expression in the Institute's offerings. He included popular and folk music as well as classical music in the weekly programs. He worked closely with the directors of the dance and theatre programs in an attempt at creating quality productions that emphasized the island's cultural heritage. A result of these programs was that many Puerto Ricans understood that the island's cultural heritage was rich and varied, and that it was as worthy of study and interpretation as that of any western civilization.

His programs were carefully created and appealed not only to intellectuals but also to the public at large. Because of his success with cultural endeavors he was inducted as a member of the Academy of Arts and Sciences of Puerto Rico in 1966. He shared this honor with his close friend, pianist Jesus María Sanromá. Perhaps because he was so actively promoting the historic cultural identity of Puerto Rico, Campos Parsi was increasingly considered a nationalist. On the island this also meant a close identification with the political ideal of independence for the island from US domination. Although at this time he was not actively involved with political goals, the perception of the general public was that he shared the pro independence point of view for the island's political destiny. He tacitly accepted this view but he did not proselytize for particular political ideas and, years later when he finally did, it caused him intense grief.

Also in 1966 Campos Parsi organized an artistic event known as the "Primer Festival Interamericano de las Artes". With the support of most of the major government agencies and organizations such as the Conservatory of Music, Department of Education, University of Puerto Rico, Ateneo, State Department and others, Campos put together an art exposition that covered most areas of creativity including architecture, dance, theater, visual arts, and music. The musical activities included performances, lectures and demostrations by Aaron Copland, Milton Babitt, Vladimir Ussachevski, Mario Davidovski, Roque Cordero, Juan Orrego-Salas, Hector Tosar, and others. It was the first time a concert of electronic music was presented on the island, with sound generators brought in by Ussachevski and Luening. Aaron Copland conducted a program of his music, and lectured on contemporary music.

During the decade of 1960-70 Campos Parsi travelled extensively as lecturer and from 1968 on he accompanied many cultural delegations. In the year 1960 alone, he travelled to the University of Toronto, the Universidad Autónoma de Méjico, and Wellesley College to lecture on the Puerto Rican danza. In 1965 he lectured at Santiago, Spain, on the roots of Puerto Rican music. His lectures were very successful and popular with the audiences. In 1969 he lectured at the Mozarteum Society in Argentina, the Casa de la Cultura in Quito, Ecuador, and at Indiana University in Bloomington, where his lecture was titled "Is nationalism dead?".

He traveled with the Figueroa Quintet, an outstanding classical chamber music group comprised of members of a single family, through most of Latin America. In 1968 they toured Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and El Salvador. The following year they visited Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Brazil. These missions were sponsored by the Puerto Rican government and had the intention of destroying the myth that Puerto Rico had become so Americanized that the islanders no longer spoke Spanish. The concerts presented included folk and popular music, and music by island composers such as Campos Parsi. These travelling artists soon realized that their native Puerto Rico had as vibrant and creative a music scene as any of the countries that they visited.


1. Montañez, R. "Campos Parsi encara tarea de creación Puertorriqueña" El Mundo, no date; No name "Campos Parsi volverá a isla" El Mundo, 29 June 1954.

2. "Agasajan en Ateneo a dos artistas" El Mundo, 22 July 1954, no name. This article features excellent photographs of the event.

3. Barreto, R. "Desea laborar aquí pro música boricua" El Mundo, 1 July 1954.

4. Morales Carrión, A., Puerto Rico, Chapter Fourteen.

5. For a copy of the program see Appendix B of original dissertation.

6. An review containing laudatory mention of the work appears in "Les concerts a Paris" La Tribune de Geneve, 26 March 1954, no name.

7. Matilla, A., "Harán primer Festival de Música Latinoamericana" El Mundo, October 24, 1954.

8. "Inocente Palacios elegido presidente de Asociación Interamericana de Música" El Nacional, Caracas, 11 December 1954, no name.

9. Marquez, J. "Regresan de Festival Mundial en Caracas" El Mundo, October 23, 1954.

10. "Ha encontrado en Venezuela su punto de convergencia la música de la América Latina" El Universal, Caracas, 24 November 1954.

11. "La joven composición Latinoamericana es muy superior a la coetanea europea" El Nacional, Caracas, 24 November 1954.

12. Benitez, N. "Concierto de clausura y encuesta en los festivales de Caracas" Diario de la Marina, Cuba, February 9, 1955.

13. Brown, R. "Modesta with non professional cast takes top Venice Film Festival honors" World Journal, Puerto Rico, 10 September, 1956.

14. For a copy of the program see Appendix B of the original dissertation.

15. For a copy of the diploma see Appendix A of the original dissertation.

16. An article in El Nacional quotes Campos Parsi as interested in exploring electronic music. See "El Puertorriqueño Campos Parsi no teme usar sonidos electrónicos en su creación musical actual", El Nacional, 21 March 1957

17. Campos Parsi, H. La Gran Enciclopedia de Puerto Rico, Vol. 7, 286-287.

18. "Maestro Casals aspira sea centro de música de América" El Mundo, January 26, 1960, no name.

19. "Music of present and past" Christian Science Monitor, no name, May 5, 1958.

20. "Sanroma plays countryman's sonata" no name, Miami News, May 4, 1958.

21. Zorilla, A. "Usan obra de Campos Parsi para ballet" El Mundo, 1958.

22. Matilla, A. "Música al aire libre" El Mundo, no date.

23. For a copy of the original letter see Appendix D of the original dissertation.

24. "String congress to play PR music" The Island Times, no name, June 24, 1960.

25. For a copy of program see Appendix B of the original dissertation.

26. For a copy of program see Appendix B of the original dissertation.

27. Soltero, N. "Firma medida establece Conservatorio de Música" El Mundo, June 16, 1959.

28. Campos Parsi, H. La Gran Enciclopedia de Puerto Rico, Vol. 7, 300.

29. Fernández E. "Mirador, una ventana a nuestro mundo" El Nuevo Día, May 12, 1983.

30. Batista, G. "Hector Campos Parsi" (in 3 parts), El Reportero, newspaper, 18 November, 19 November, 20 November 1982. San Juan, PR. See also Martinez Solá, J. "Las encrucijadas de Hector Campos Parsi" El Nuevo Día, newspaper, 2 November 1982, San Juan, PR.

31. Ewen, D. "Alberto Ginastera", World of Twentieth Century Music, Prentice Hall, 1968. 304-305.

32. Babb, D. "Composer is asked to pull out of Festival" San Juan Star, 3 June 1980.

33. Aponte, R. "Cuestiona criterios de Campos Parsi" El Mundo, June 14, 1980.


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